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[校园生活] 向主厨一样制作出完美的沙拉

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发表于 2017-2-10 12:21:14 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
美国肯代尔大学,Kendall College
向主厨一样制作出完美的沙拉) y  x9 |6 s9 a' {1 Z5 ^& q7 ]  ?
CONSTRUCTING THE PERFECT SALAD—LIKE A CHEF WOULD$ c: m+ ]: n2 a. V& @

1 s6 ?$ W% P" t5 m- c# S主厨Chris Koetke,肯代尔烹饪艺术学院副院长. A1 R* p: v% P; C; b% {
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salad.jpg
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  了解我的人都知道,我个人非常喜欢沙拉。这种喜好是一生的钟爱而不是短暂的热情。我心目中理想的沙拉应该是由一个纯净的搅拌碗盛好一些辛辣和苦涩的绿色沙拉蔬菜,撒上晶盐和黑胡椒粉,倒入酸性的调味品进行搅拌,最后再加上极富味觉冲击力的芥末和葱段。我不会在沙拉里面放入甜味的装饰食材,我更喜欢我的沙拉尝起来有丰富的回味感。
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  作为一名主厨,我知道并不是所有人都会和我有相同的口味爱好。但是,通过学习主厨是如何烹制沙拉,以及藏在这些烹制手法背后的理念,能让你掌握到制作一款出色沙拉的秘诀,从而在这块领域获得成功。以下是我认为创作出一款新沙拉的重要理念。; M- {! a5 E( V/ f7 \0 H/ J  t
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  一个出色的沙拉应该具备丰富的元素,即便是做一款简单的沙拉。在制作沙拉中,你可以使用多彩的食材来使你的作品看上去颜色鲜亮和多彩。日常的蔬菜就能为你提供具有活力的颜色(红色,绿色,黄色,白色,和不同程度的绿色)。当你在选择食材时,请注意他们结合在一块所形成的多样口感:松脆的,有嚼劲的,多汁的,酥脆的,柔软的。同时还应该混合多样的味道,包括咸的,鲜香的,苦涩的,清甜的,酸涩的以及辛辣的。不同的味道特征可以通过复杂的味道搭配来实现。
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  当你在制作一款调味品的时候,找到一款自己最喜欢的口味。最基本的调味品是香醋和油的混合成品(通常油和香醋的比例为2-3:1),也可以再加上一些食用盐。同时也还有很多种口味可以考虑:
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( J, ?& {, K% y! Z9 g5 n' x 酸味:香醋在口味和强度上有不同的品类。可以参考下雪梨醋(sherry vinegar),意大利黑醋(balsamic vinegar)和泡醋(infused vinegar)。但这并不意味着调制出酸性的味道只能靠香醋来实现,你也可以利用酸性的食材诸如柑橘来部分或全部代替调味中使用的香醋。
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/ U' L5 w( x9 ^( k) h8 R 油类: 通常食用油的味道包含了从浓香到中性的两种口感。中性油一般只提供脂肪而没有额外的味道。这类油包括:菜籽油,花生油,大豆油和葵花油。香油则味道和脂肪兼具,例如芝麻油,橄榄油,胡桃油。% W5 y7 j8 g5 F$ s8 U9 s- L

$ m& V( I1 W( |# n7 G/ d$ a, L- ^ 混合风味: 留意一下你能够利用到的所有“味道”。综合的口感能为沙拉带来具有层次的体验和具有吸引力的“品相”。添加新鲜的草本植物,辣椒,芥末,山葵,生洋葱或大葱,以及生大蒜或熟大蒜,这些食材加在一块能够产生出精妙的味觉组合。
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综合甜味: 我妻子和我都谈论过沙拉里面的甜味应该如何做到更好。常见的做法是给调味剂中加入一定的甜味剂,例如糖类,龙舌兰糖浆(agave syrup),枫树糖浆(maple syrup),果汁或蜂蜜,也可以适当的加入新鲜的或风干的水果。5 D$ q6 B" F4 ~
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  很多人认为沙拉就是一些新鲜水果的混合,但也不总是这样。制作沙拉的时候,你可以用很多种烹饪方法来处理水果大杂烩,来实现更多有趣的组合——可以做成冷餐,常温餐和热餐等等形式。试想一下:炭烧玉米粒,各种形状和尺寸的烤时蔬,根类蔬菜或洋葱,和其他种种的绿色蔬菜。这样的例子数不胜数。$ ~" Q( v) P9 A* Q+ @1 l) E

4 |+ @4 ^6 N) h8 o  当要制作一顿主餐沙拉时,考虑增进一些蛋白质丰富的食材,让整体的口感更加“厚实”。通常,我们会选择动物蛋白来做沙拉中蛋白质的来源(包括奶酪,鸡蛋,家禽肉,食用肉类和海产品等),当然也可以选用植物类蛋白,像黄豆,扁豆,以及品种繁多的谷物,如法老小麦(farro),藜麦(quinoa)等都是制作沙拉的好配料。
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9 z7 @8 f# W3 M3 L, Y  掌握了上述的烹饪理念和方法后,相信你能够制作出一款符合自己口味的沙拉来。去用心体验过程中的乐趣,因为制作美食本事就是一件充满激情,满足和有趣的事情2 M: e" m2 W; h( e" d
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  主厨Chris Koetke,肯代尔烹饪管理学院副院长,劳瑞德国际大学烹饪艺术卓越中心副院长。他于1982年正式开始其烹饪艺术职业生涯。Chris Koetke曾在多家世界顶尖餐厅中工作过,包括法国Pavilion Elysees,Pierre Gagnaire,,Taillevent和Pierre Orsi。他获得了美国烹饪协会(American Culinary Federation.)授予的认证行政总厨和认证烹饪艺术教育家。5 @" G. Y; F& _' s# P# t! H
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) `6 @  k, {% f* D# N: ?1 u% S3 K% f肯代尔大学 - 肯代尔学院 - 肯代尔 - Kendall College
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 楼主| 发表于 2017-2-10 13:39:04 | 显示全部楼层
美国肯代尔大学,Kendall College
CONSTRUCTING THE PERFECT SALAD—LIKE A CHEF WOULD
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! Z* A: g0 ~9 Z& d  HBy Chef Chris Koetke, Vice President, School of Culinary Arts5 O  B! \+ S  P1 S# ~

, q, R) J0 ~3 Z) j0 |& g& AThose who know me well, know that I love salad. This is not a passing affection, but a lifelong love. My ideal? A big stainless mixing bowl filled with some spicy and bitter salad greens, sprinkled with salt crystals and coarsely ground black pepper, and tossed with an acidic vinaigrette punctuated with strong mustard and minced shallot. No sweet salad dressings. I like my salads to bite back a bit.3 W3 a/ M6 {3 |. f( \

: O, u# |% ~% @0 _6 ^6 n. NAs a chef, I am well aware that not everyone shares my palate. Knowing how chefs compose salads and the thought process behind them will help you learn the why’s of building a great salad, making it possible for you to find similar success. These are the key points I consider as I create new salad combinations:
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A great salad should have different elements even if it is a simple creation. How many colors of the spectrum you can get into the salad makes it visually bright and interesting. Vegetables offer so many vibrant colors (red, green, yellow, white, different shades of green). When choosing ingredients, consider integrating multiple textures: crunchy, chewy, juicy, crispy, soft. Maximize the variety of flavors. Have you thought about salty, umami, bitter, sweet, acid, piquant? Different flavor profiles can be achieved through a complexly flavored dressing.5 q1 i' B$ c+ E8 V+ \7 E
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When building a vinaigrette, look to achieve a balance of flavors that most appeals to you. A basic vinaigrette is vinegar and oil (typically in a ratio of two or three parts oil to one part vinegar) and some salt. But there are so many other considerations, including:
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  ~7 j% I/ G# y# m" m4 W! U( M7 K Acids: Vinegars have different strengths and flavors. Consider sherry, balsamic and infused vinegars. But it does not even have to be vinegar. Other acidic ingredients like citrus can replace all or part of the vinegar.: r* C* N. O8 l% L5 _; M

" d9 z, ~$ i$ p: J9 B  \ Oils: These are typically categorized from flavorful to neutral. Neutral oils are just that—they provide fat without additional flavor profiles. Examples include canola, peanut, soy bean and sunflower oils. Flavorful oils contribute fat and flavor. Consider sesame, olive and nut oils.
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  G7 v; ?. v) Y* f Pack in flavor: Consider all the other flavors that you can introduce. A panorama of flavors adds complexity and interest to the salad. Add fresh herbs, chilies, mustard, wasabi, raw onion or shallot, and raw or cooked garlic. These elements add sparkle. Learning how to balance these flavors takes some trial and error.( n8 q; Y8 r1 M0 @- c( v7 I; L

, }  i0 ~, D- Q Balance sweetness: My wife and I argue about how sweet our salads should be. It is not uncommon to add some amount of sweetness to a vinaigrette, like sugar, agave syrup, maple syrup, fruit juices or honey, or by adding ingredients like fresh or dried fruit.( D) S% z5 t$ p$ `  |! v# {( d

/ a# a" ]% k1 @& c: oWhile many people think of salads as a combination of fresh vegetables it’s not always true. Think of all the ways that cooking vegetables can make them that much more interesting—and they can be served cold, room temperature, or even hot. Imagine: charred corn kernels, grilled vegetables of all shapes and sizes, roasted root vegetables or onions, and wilted greens. The list is endless.
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When making a main course salad, consider adding protein to give it a bit more heft. Certainly, the protein may be animal based (cheese, eggs, poultry, meat, seafood), but it could also be vegetable based. Cooked beans or lentils, nuts, and the plethora of new and interesting grains, like farro or quinoa, make for great additions to a salad.; B- y# i: k# k- J4 c

  ~. z# P3 O; A0 s- T' ?Armed with the above, you are ready to create your own salad to suit your taste. But please don’t forget to have fun. Creating great food should be a passionate, satisfying and really fun endeavor!9 @; k6 {  r" d0 Q

% T, X$ d/ o: m- FChef Chris Koetke, the vice president of both the Kendall College School of Culinary Arts and Laureate International Universities Center of Excellence in Culinary Arts, began cooking professionally in 1982, and has worked in some of the world’s finest kitchens, including French restaurants Pavilion Elysees, Pierre Gagnaire, Taillevent, and Pierre Orsi. He is a certified executive chef and certified culinary educator by the American Culinary Federation.
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