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[校园生活] 味道的创新者!

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发表于 2017-2-16 14:46:24 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
美国肯代尔大学,Kendall College
味道的创新者
# e5 V8 V' _9 y  f: j9 M4 {THE FLAVOR INNOVATOR$ J3 G2 m  t# j1 g  j. c3 v
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Elaine Sikorski.jpg
# M  o" Y1 p. _  z% G$ P  MElaine Sikorski
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  人们通常很少会想到在饮料上面进行味道的创新,但我们主厨Elaine Sikorski却十分热衷在饮料上面做着创新的设计。作为我们风味理论课程(Flavor Theory)的主讲导师,她经常能想出新奇的方法来使用各式各样的配料。在去年9月份Imbibe公司举办的一次活动上,她为自己的同事,那些烹饪专家和科系的老师们,提供了制作出新颖风味的设计方案。她为我们分享了她对味道创新理论的种种想法。7 _8 m4 G0 J0 F5 M) I

7 N1 h- C& ^1 j6 T请跟我们谈谈你的“味道设计:烹饪家的视角”。; ]' h) l4 [1 u; l: v3 a7 b
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  主厨与“味道”打交道的时候,着重心灵与口舌的结合,来探知这个微妙的世界。我以金利克鸡尾酒(Gin Rickey)这一款普通的鸡尾酒为例,来说明我是如何做出一番创新的。首先,我会考虑到应季的配料。在秋天,我会挑选一些硬南瓜,蔓越莓,芹菜根和苹果。接下来,我会思考哪些食材之间在相近的地方生长,因为这种情况下他们通常会有相近的味觉体验。在一个树木茂盛的地方,你可以找到草莓,山核桃,糖槭树和野生稻等等。你也需要将文化的因素考虑进来,这影响着你如何搭配你的食材。比如在常见的美国文化中,培根经常和鸡蛋,蛤蚌,豆类和卷心菜等搭配在一起。; c7 s' [; x2 z' d( n/ Y# S

1 t% C  C) D, P0 z7 P Lime Rickey.jpg
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  一款标准的青柠利克酒(Lime Rickey),通常会以杜松子酒或波本威士忌为基础,包括为添加青柠,苏打水或者青柠苏打,不放入或者只加入一点糖,最后再把它制成一款冷饮。我更习惯与将这些材料和成分进行“解构”,寻找味道上的“联合”,这一过程中能使我对“味道”进行更精致的运作和个性化表达。比如就这一款酒而言,我能很快设想出树莓青柠利克酒和迷迭香—蜂蜜金利克鸡尾酒。在不断打磨这些配方的同时,受到手工制作的黑胡椒青柠苏打的影响,我还创新出了一款黑胡椒金克丽鸡尾酒。2 b; e3 u3 |5 K3 t
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  接下来,我会对原材料进行更发散的思考。比如:这种口味是否还可以运用在其他的菜谱上面?随后,我将这种口味设计到一款果酱之中,可以与奶酪一起混合,作为正餐前的餐前小食。其实我这次的展示旨在向大家说明,作为一名主厨,你应该让自己具备创新能力,通过为自己设定就几个标准(比如选择从制作餐谱作为自己的起始点),全身心投入到这个领域中,你会发现无穷多的创新可能。1 ?& ~6 q4 e4 S, I3 B' H

3 l2 x  r% ]. m. m( [& e1 w1 V3 q观众们都对你的演讲和提出的观念有了清楚的认识。你能谈谈主厨与科学家在对待“味道”上面有什么样的不同吗?4 V$ f! Y& P* ~: Q

7 P% d% y  [( J! W2 f! h  科学家和主厨与“味道”打交道的方式不一样,但是也有很大一部分是相似的。主厨们追求味觉上的统一和协调性。比如,主厨会关注胡萝卜,芹菜或其他食材等整体性上的协调。化学家们更关注微观的层面,比如每个食材的化学成分。同样,当我在寻求整体性的同时,我也会留意到食材的微观部分,因为结合两种视角,食材的搭配才会更加相得益彰。正是在这一过程中,我对每道菜谱中食材的协调性有了更深刻的认识,这会让我变得更富创造性。" G7 J/ M- [2 i2 v: j& G! N
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你是如何将这一原理运用到课堂中的呢?$ }1 U# ^5 x3 j0 H) J( O& F

) n: n  y' T9 x) j  作为一名烹饪专业教师,我的目标是让我的学生明白如何同时去运用他们的味觉和思想分析不同的食材,选择合理的烹饪方式,为餐饮烹饪带来革新的变化。在风味理论课程上面,有一个训练环节要求学生根据某一个颜色(不能使用食材中的真实颜色)去制作一道菜肴。其中一个学生为了呈现出蓝色的效果,使用了格兰尼它冰糕,快熏鳕鱼和西柚以及龙嵩叶,再与生姜和甘蓝一同腌制。她最后做出的效果好极了,菜品尝起来有“淡蓝色”的感觉。能在我们学生身上看到蓬勃的创新精神,对于教师而言是一件非常欣慰的事情。9 q9 B7 F/ \/ z0 D% r/ @
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1 \6 H- [  f+ R8 K肯代尔大学 - 肯代尔学院 - 肯代尔 - Kendall College
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 楼主| 发表于 2017-2-16 14:49:04 | 显示全部楼层
美国肯代尔大学,Kendall College
THE FLAVOR INNOVATOR# l) z, L- U: q- A- o
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People don’t often think about culinary innovations in beverages, but it’s a natural topic for Chef Elaine Sikorski. As the instructor of our Flavor Theory course, she’s constantly brainstorming new approaches to any and all ingredients. During an event at Imbibe, Inc. in September, she presented ideas to help colleagues, both practitioners and fellow faculty, design new flavors. Here, she shares her process:* V. d! o4 j& K3 I- J

% [# X3 r. \& bTell me about the concepts you presented in “Designing Flavor: A Culinary Perspective.”% C" {! h" E, G7 T3 o
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A chef uses the mind-mouth connection as an instrument to assess flavor. I used a Gin Rickey, a common cocktail, as an example, to illustrate how to do this. First, I examined seasonal ingredients. In the fall, we have access to hard squashes, cranberries, celery root and apples. Next, I thought about the ingredients that grow near one another, because they often share flavor affinities. In a wooded area, you might find berries, hickory nuts, sugar maple trees and wild rice. You may also consider cultural traditions since they determine how you pair ingredients. Bacon is an American favorite and pairs well with eggs, clams, beans and cabbage.
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; T- O; s. ~" d8 P' x- ^. ZA standard Lime Rickey starts with gin or bourbon, includes lime, carbonated water or lemon-lime soda, has little or no sugar, and is served on ice. I broke that down by deconstructing the ingredients to come up with flavor associations, which allowed me to elaborate and personalize it. Immediate ideas included a Raspberry Lime Rickey and a Rosemary-Honey Gin Rickey. But by honing the recipe even more, I created a version of a Black Pepper Gin Rickey, which is driven by handcrafted black pepper-lime soda.' D1 I9 R! N3 j- \6 t2 R3 ]

6 `' ]3 G2 ?/ v/ ?$ p8 K: ]Next, I considered the ingredients even more broadly. Does this flavor profile also fit on the menu elsewhere? I adapted the flavors for a jam that can be served with cheese as an amuse-bouche to begin a multi-course meal. The goal of my presentation was to showcase that as chefs, once you allow yourself to enter a creative space by setting a few parameters (like choosing a recipe as a starting point), it’s possible to come up with endless variations./ `; F! o# `2 j) S/ u' ?4 T

' ?; o2 U5 Q: i. d8 wYour process and concepts were very well received by the audience. How does a chef’s approach differ from a scientist’s?
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Scientists develop flavors very differently than chefs do; however, there is a tremendous amount of overlap. Chefs approach flavors in chords. For example, a chord of carrots, celery or another whole ingredient. Chemists focus on the notes, not a full chord, by examining the chemicals in each ingredient. When I look at the chords, I look for the same notes, because they pair well. The exercise makes me think more deeply about the synergy of the ingredients in each recipe, which allows me to be more creative.+ J8 k; r7 P+ O5 d4 U5 L
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How do you apply principles like this in the classroom?
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1 A/ H( t; h; e% b' d/ b: {As a culinary instructor, my goal is to share how students can use their mouths and minds simultaneously to analyze ingredients, choose cooking skills and make adjustments to craft a dish. In the Flavor Theory course, one exercise asks students to design a recipe based on a color (using the color in the actual dish is not required). To represent the color blue, one student used dashi granita, quick cured cod, grapefruit and tarragon caviar, pickled ginger and kohlrabi. She did a brilliant job—and it tasted like a light blue. It’s so rewarding to see how purposefully creative our students can be.2 x7 k6 I3 k- l5 G4 A, T9 n

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